Making Schools Work : A Revolutionary Plan to Get Your Children the Education They Need [Hardcover]
Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge
William G. Ouchi
In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies (Collins Business Essentials) [Paperback]
Thomas J. Peters (Author), Robert H. Waterman (Author)
Business organizations are, by definition, groups of people, but the formal use of teams as a way of organizing work has grown tremendously in the past half-century. The Japanese use of teams was credited for that country’s economic success in the 1970’s. Since then, businesses worldwide have been moving away from hierarchical management structures based on the Prussian army of the 1700’s. Instead, a “systems” perspective tries to emulate the structure of a complex living organism to distribute knowledge and responsibility throughout a corporate entity.
Torrington, Hall and Taylor (2005) suggest that human resource management is about getting the right people to work in the most productive way in the positions most suited to their abilities. Thus managers at Tenrose first of all have to strike a balance between people’s needs including employees and management as well as shareholders within the framework of what are its organisational objectives.
Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge [Paperback]
William G. Ouchi (Author
Seligman introduced positive psychology as “a movement” during his term as president of the APA in 1998. He and Csikszentmihalyi followed up in 2000 with a paper introducing a special issue of the American Psychologist, devoted to positive psychology. In this seminal article, the authors presented positive psychology as a corrective to what they described as the dominant approach of modern psychology: the disease model of human functioning. The authors described three levels of analysis including the subjective (about valued subjective experiences like well–being, contentment, hope, optimism, flow and happiness); the individual level (positive psychological traits like the capacity for love, vocation, courage, perseverance, forgiveness, spirituality, high talent and wisdom) and the group level (civic virtues and institutions that facilitate citizenship, responsibility, nurturance, altruism, civility, moderation, tolerance and work ethic). The authors were hostile to the earlier efforts of humanistic psychology and called for the use of rigorous scientific standards in examining the psychology of positive human functioning (although, much of Seligman’s recent research has been done using questionnaires distributed and answered through the Internet).
via Positive psychology.
Selecting the right colors for a workplace can be as important as selecting the right employees to work for you. A research paper by Kalyan N. Meola, with the University of Hawaii at Hilo, states that visual elements, including colors, can have an influence on employee behaviors, productivity levels, moods and attitudes. The psychological effects of wall colors in a workplace are an important consideration when creating a perceived room temperature and ambiance.
For Ouchi, Theory Z focused on increasing employee loyalty to the company by providing a job for life with a strong focus on the well-being of the employee, both on and off the job. According to Ouchi, Theory Z management tends to promote stable employment, high productivity, and high employee morale and satisfaction.
Ironically, “Japanese Management”
Positive psychology in the workplace is about shifting attention away from negative aspects such as work violence, stress, burnout, and job insecurity. Positive psychology can help create a working environment goal of promoting positive affect in its employees. Fun should not be looked at as something that cannot be achieved during work but rather as a motivation factor for the staff. Along these same lines it is important to examine the role of: helping behaviors, team building exercises, job resources, job security and work support. The new emerging field of Positive Psychology helps, also, to creatively manage organizational behaviors and to increase productivity in the workplace through applying positive organizational forces. In the broad sense traditional psychology has not specifically focused on the implementation of positive psychology methods in the workplace. The recent research on job satisfaction and employee retention has created a greater need to focus on implementing positive psychology in the workplace.
hogan high school turfin t.c. turf champs labbin session
7. How much of the General Fund Budget is spent on Education? (Or, on some other major program areas?)
While it has changed over time and changes somewhat from year-to-year, about 52 to 55 percent of the State General Fund Budget is spent on K–12 and Higher Education.
School Desegregation, Linguistic Segregation and Access to English for Latino Students
Arizona State University
The purpose of promoting the individual was to depose the monarch and the church; the effect – through the new ethical significance attributed to contract – was to buttress property and prescriptions. But it was not long before the claims of society raised themselves anew against the individual. Paley and Bentham accepted utilitarian hedonism from the hands of Hume and his predecessors, but enlarged it into social utility.
For Pragmatists, teaching methods focus on hands-on problem solving, experimenting, and projects, often having students work in groups. Curriculum should bring the disciplines together to focus on solving problems in an interdisciplinary way. Rather than passing down organized bodies of knowledge to new learners, Pragmatists believe that learners should apply their knowledge to real situations through experimental inquiry. This prepares students for citizenship, daily living, and future careers.
The Realist curriculum emphasizes the subject matter of the physical world, particularly science and mathematics. The teacher organizes and presents content systematically within a discipline, demonstrating use of criteria in making decisions. Teaching methods focus on mastery of facts and basic skills through demonstration and recitation. Students must also demonstrate the ability to think critically and scientifically, using observation and experimentation. Curriculum should be scientifically approached, standardized, and distinct-discipline based. Character is developed through training in the rules of conduct.
American existentialists have focused more on human potential and the quest for personal meaning. Values clarification is an outgrowth of this movement. Following the bleak period of World War II, the French philosopher, Jean Paul Sartre, suggested that for youth, the existential moment arises when young persons realize for the first time that choice is theirs, that they are responsible for themselves. Their question becomes “Who am I and what should I do?
Individual choice and individual standards rather than external standards are central. Existence comes before any definition of what we are. We define ourselves in relationship to that existence by the choices we make. We should not accept anyone else’s predetermined philosophical system; rather, we must take responsibility for deciding who we are. The focus is on freedom, the development of authentic individuals, as we make meaning of our lives.
Pragmatists believe that reality is constantly changing and that we learn best through applying our experiences and thoughts to problems, as they arise.
John Dewey (1859-1952) applied pragmatist philosophy in his progressive approaches. He believed that learners must adapt to each other and to their environment. Schools should emphasize the subject matter of social experience.
Different cultural and ethnic groups learn to work cooperatively and contribute to a democratic society.
On the other hand pragmatists spoke of social determinism. As such, exstentialism is a revolt against any kind of determinism and an affirmation of the free nature of man. They affirm that existence is prior to essence that man is fundamentally free to create his essences.
He is the product of his choices. He is, therefore, an individual who is different from other persons.
It is a quest for creative identity
a quest for subjective truth, a reaction against the ‘negation of Being’ and a perennial search for freedom.
Philosophical Perspectives in Education Part 2
Four General or World Philosophies
existentialism teaching curriculum