Garry Kasparov’s 1997 chess match against the IBM supercomputer Deep Blue was a watershed moment in the history of technology. It was the dawn of a new era in artificial intelligence: a machine capable of beating the reigning human champion at this most cerebral game. That moment was more than a century in the making, and in this breakthrough book, Kasparov reveals his astonishing side of the story for the first time. He describes how it felt to strategize against an implacable, untiring opponent with the whole world watching, and recounts the history of machine intelligence through the microcosm of chess, considered by generations of scientific pioneers to be a key to unlocking the secrets of human and machine cognition. Kasparov uses his unrivaled experience to look into the future of intelligent machines and sees it bright with possibility. As many critics decry artificial intelligence as a menace, particularly to human jobs, Kasparov shows how humanity can rise to new heights with the help of our most extraordinary creations, rather than fear them. Deep Thinking is a tightly argued case for technological progress, from the man who stood at its precipice with his own career at stake.
“The US really needs to examine their vetting procedures and manuals to see why so many people who they train do so many terrible things when they go back home,”
Israel occupation 1948 –
British Empire occupation 1918 to 1948
Ottoman Empire occupation 1517 to 1918
Saracen Empire occupation 1187 to 1517
British/French Empires occupation 1098 to 1187
Saracen Empire occupation 611 to 1098
Byzantine Empire occupation 300 to 611
Roman Empire occupation 63 BCE to 300
Macedonian Empire occupation 332 BCE to 145 BCE
Babylonian Empire occupation 605 BCE to 332 BCE
Assyrian Empire occupation 745 BCE to 605 BCE
Israel occupation 1200 BCE to 745 BCE
Egyptian Empire occupation 3000 BCE to 1200 BCE
Estimated number of British civilians killed during World War II: 93,000
BY THE NUMBERS: THE US MILITARY:
Although he was born into one of the wealthiest families in North America, Thomas Jefferson was deeply in debt when he died. Jefferson’s trouble began when his father-in-law died, and he and his brothers-in-law quickly divided the estate before its debts were settled. It made each of them liable for the whole amount due – which turned out to be more than they expected.
Jefferson sold land before the American Revolution to pay off the debts, but by the time he received payment, the paper money was worthless amid the skyrocketing inflation of the war years. Cornwallis ravaged Jefferson’s plantation during the war, and British creditors resumed their collection efforts when the conflict ended. Jefferson suffered another financial setback when he cosigned notes for a relative who reneged on debts in the financial Panic of 1819. Only Jefferson’s public stature prevented creditors from seizing Monticello and selling it out from under him during his lifetime.
After his death, his possessions were sold at auction. In 1831, Jefferson’s 552 acres (223 hectares) were sold to James T. Barclay for $7,000, equivalent to $143 thousand today. Thomas Jefferson is buried on his Monticello estate, in Charlottesville, Virginia. In his will, he left Monticello to the United States to be used as a school for orphans of navy officers. His epitaph, written by him with an insistence that only his words and “not a word more” be inscribed (notably omitting his service as Governor of Virginia, Vice-President and President), reads: